Course descriptions

BI 101. Principles of Biology I. 4 Credits.

This course is the prerequisite for all biology courses and satisfies general education laboratory science requirements for both majors and non-majors. This course gives an introduction to biochemistry, cell structure, metabolism, and protein synthesis, as well as human anatomy and physiology. Dissection of living and preserved animals is required. Classroom 3 hours, laboratory 2 hours. Offered fall and spring semesters.

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BI 102. Principles of Biology II. 4 Credits.

This course is a prerequisite for most biology courses and satisfies general education laboratory science requirements for both majors and non-majors. This course explores genetics, evolutionary theory, diversity of life on earth, history of life on earth, and ecology. Dissection of preserved animals is required. Classroom 3 hours, laboratory 2 hours. Prerequisite: BI 101 or permission of the instructor. Offered spring semesters.

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BI 201. Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy. 4 Credits.

A study of the origins, structure and functions of the organ systems of representative vertebrates. An attempt is made to correlate form and function in the evolution of the vertebrates. Classroom 3 hours, laboratory 3 hours. Prerequisites: BI 101, BI 102. Offered fall semesters of odd numbered years.

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BI 202. Genetics. 4 Credits.

The physical and chemical basis of inheritance, expression, and interaction of the hereditary units, linkage, and variation. The application of Mendelian principles to plants and animals. Consideration is also given to microbial and viral genetics and genetic engineering. Classroom 3 hours, laboratory 2 hours. Prerequisites: BI 101, BI 102. Offered fall semesters.

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BI 203. Introduction to Scientific Method & Bioscientific Terminology. 1 Credit.

An introduction to the philosophy of science, the scientific method and bioscientific terminology. Analysis of data and interpretation of scientific and science-related popular press articles is stressed. Includes exposure to various forms of scientific communication and data collection and analysis. Prepares the student for the rigors of majoring in the biological sciences. Classroom 1 hour. Prerequisites: Sophomore standing, major in Biology.

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BI 215. Human Anatomy and Physiology. 4 Credits.

This is the first half of a two semester course exploring human anatomy and physiology. It covers cellular metabolism, tissues, and the following body systems: skeletal, muscle, coetaneous, and nervous. Dissection of preserved animals is required. Classroom 3 hours, laboratory 2 hours. Prerequisite: BI 101 or permission of the instructor. Offered fall semesters.

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BI 216. Human Anatomy and Physiology. 4 Credits.

This is the second half of a two semester course exploring human anatomy and physiology. It investigates the following body systems: endocrine, digestive, respiratory, circulatory, lymphatic (including the immune response), urinary, and reproductive. Dissection of preserved animals is required. Classroom 3 hours, laboratory 2 hours. Prerequisite: BI 215 or permission of the instructor. Offered spring semesters.

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BI 220. Introductory Microbiology. 4 Credits.

A survey of the field of microbiology with emphasis on those microorganisms of medical significance. Fundamentals of microbial structure, physiology and control are considered along with the role of pathogenic organisms in the infectious and disease processes. Laboratory exercises are designed to provide facility in visualizing, staining, culturing, enumerating, isolating, maintaining, and identifying micro organisms. Classroom 3 hours, laboratory 2 hours. Prerequisite: BI 101 or permission of the instructor. Offered spring semesters.

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BI 240. Environmental and Food Microbiology. 4 Credits.

A course designed to develop an awareness of the essential role of microbes in maintaining the biosphere and the quality of life of its human inhabitants. The role of microorganisms as degraders, bioremediators and recyclers of essential elements will be presented and reinforced through laboratory exercises. The dependence of humans on microorganisms for health, food transformation, pharmaceutical production and genetic engineering will be explored in lecture and lab. Controversies surrounding the use of biotechnology to produce genetically engineered foods and animals as well as agents for bioterrorism, will be discussed. Classroom 3 hours, laboratory 2 hours. Prerequisites: BI 101, BI 102 or permission of the instructor. Offered even-numbered fall semesters.

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BI 253. Foods and Nutrition. 4 Credits.

A course designed to provide the student with a background in organizational structure and activities that emphasize the physiological basis of nutrition with an analysis of nutritional needs at various age levels. Consideration given to the relationship of nutrition to health and fitness, principles of food selection, metabolism of nutrients, vitamins and minerals, energy balance and obesity, food safety and technology. Classroom 3 hours, Field Experience/Laboratory 2 hours. Prerequisite: BI 101. Offered spring semesters.

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BI 260. Orinthology. 4 Credits.

A survey of avian biology and ecology to include evolution, the anatomical and physiological adaptations for flight, migration, behavior, reproduction and identification of birds and their songs. Integrated classroom, laboratory, and field studies will emphasize Vermont birds. Dissection of the pigeon during the spring semester is an integral part of the spring course's laboratory component. The summer course features a nesting study in lieu of dissection. Classroom 3 hours, laroratory 2 hours. Offered spring semesters.

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BI 275. Environmental Biology. 4 Credits.

An introduction to the interaction of man and the environment with emphasis on contemporary problems and their possible solutions. Local and global forms of pollution, detrimental environmental practices, and other relationships will be explored in the classroom and the laboratory. Classroom 3 hours, laboratory 2 hours. Prerequisities: BI 101, BI 102 or permission of the instructor. Offered even-numbered spring semesters.

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BI 301. Histology. 4 Credits.

A study of the cellular anatomy of the fundamental tissues and organs. May require dissection of living and preserved animals. Classroom, 3 hours, laboratory 2 hours. Prerequisite: BI 101, BI 102 or permission of instructor. Offered even-numbered fall semesters.

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BI 302. Embryology. 4 Credits.

A study of the fundamental principles of development through the establishment of the major organs and systems, exemplified in the laboratory by study of representative embryonic forms. May require dissection of living and preserved animals. Classroom 3 hours, laboratory 2 hours. Prerequisite: BI 101, BI 102 or permission of instructor. Offered even-numbered spring semesters.

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BI 304. Physiology. 4 Credits.

A study of the comparative physiology of animals. Physical and chemical principles, cell physiology, with emphasis on homeostatic mechanisms and the study of functions of organ systems. May require dissection of living animals. Classroom 3 hours, laboratory 3 hours. Prerequisites: BI 101, BI 102, and 1 year of college chemistry. Offered even-numbered spring semesters.

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BI 305. Modern Laboratory Procedures. 4 Credits.

Students are familiarized with the theories and applications of the new technologies that pervade the fields of biotechnology and molecular biology. Laboratory exercises illustrate key concepts and provide hands-on experience in the use of instrumentation essential to modern biologists. Classroom 2 hours, laboratory 4 hours. Prerequisites: BI 101, BI 102 or BI 215, BI 216, and CH 103, CH 104. Offered odd-numbered fall semesters.

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BI 306. Cell Biology. 4 Credits.

A molecular level examination of the ultrastructure and function of the cytoplasm, intracellular components, cell membrane, extracellular structures and formation, and excretion of extracellular products. Recent developments in molecular biology will be stressed, including the implications for the biotechnology industry. The laboratory component will include state-of-the-art procedures and will emphasize hands-on experimental techniques. May require dissection of living animals. Classroom 3 hours, laboratory 3 hours. Prerequisites: BI 101, BI 102 and one year of college chemistry. Offered even-numbered fall semesters.

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BI 316. Plant Taxonomy. 4 Credits.

A general survey of the taxonomy and evolution of vascular plants, emphasizing herbaceous plants. Recognition of plant families, identification of species, and principles of collecting and preserving are stressed. Classroom 3 hours, laboratory 3 hours. Prerequisite: BI 102 or permission of instructor. Offered even-numbered fall semesters.

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BI 325. Invertebrate Zoology. 4 Credits.

A fundamental course designed to give the student a general knowledge of the structure, physiology, life histories, and ecology of the invertebrate animals. Requires dissection of living and preserved animals. Classroom 3 hours, laboratory 2 hours. Prerequisites: BI 101, BI 102. Offered even-numbered fall semesters.

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BI 326. Natural History of the Vertebrates. 4 Credits.

A study of the classification, identification, and ecology of the vertebrates with special emphasis on the local fauna. Collection and preservation of organisms is an integral part of the course. Classroom 3 hours, laboratory 3 hours. Prerequisites: BI 101, BI 102. Offered odd-numbered fall semesters.

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BI 330. Immunology. 4 Credits.

A course presenting the basic principles of immunology, including antigen-antibody characteristics, the role of the immune system in defense and disease, and the application of fundamental concepts in the development of new technologies and immunodiagnosis. Classroom 3 hours, laboratory 3 hours. Prerequisites: BI 101, BI 102 or BI 215, BI 216, and 1 year of college chemistry. Offered odd-numbered spring semesters.

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BI 341. Plant Anatomy. 4 Credits.

[CAB1 (A), CAB2 (B), CAB5 (S)] The anatomy of vascular plants analyzed from an evolutionary viewpoint. Cell structure, tissues, their distribution in roots, stems, leaves and reproductive organs, and plant development are stressed. Classroom 3 hours, laboratory 3 hours. Prerequisite: BI 102 or permission of instructor. Offered odd-numbered spring semesters.

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BI 351. Dendrology and Silvics. 4 Credits.

An introduction to major woody plant species in the Northeast, including taxonomic characteristics, life histories, habitat requirements, and economic importance. Classroom 3 hours, laboratory and/or field work 3 hours. Prerequisite: BI 102 or permission of instructor. Offered odd-numbered fall semesters.

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BI 360. Pathophysiology. 3 Credits.

The study of human illness with primary emphasis on the pathogenesis of disease, its disruption of normal physiology, and the body's mechanism for restoring the steady state. The biology of the disease process is examined at the molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, and organ system level. Classroom 3 hours. Prerequisites: minimum "C" grade in BI 215, BI 216 or permission of instructor. Offered fall semesters.

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BI 364. Pathophysiology in Sports Medicine. 4 Credits.

The study of human pathology with primary emphasis on the pathogenesis of those pathological states most commonly encountered in sports medicine, their disruption of normal physiology and the body's mechanism for restoring the steady state (homeostasis). The biology of the disease process is examined at the molecular, cellular, tissue, organ and organ system level. Classroom 3 hours, laboratory 2 hours. Prerequisites: BI 215 & BI 216 with "C" or higher, or permission of instructor. Offered even-numbered spring semesters.

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BI 370. Introduction to Neuroscience. 4 Credits.

An interdisciplinary course designed to introduce the structure and function of the mammalian nervous system. Topics include, but are not limited to, neuronal development, sensory and motor systems, chemical control of the brain and behavior, and the underlying mechanisms of neurodegenerative disease. May require dissection of living animals. Classroom 3 hours, laboratory 2 hours. Prerequisites: BI 101 and either BI 215 or PY 230. Offered fall semesters.

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BI 401. Senior Seminar. 3 Credits.

This is the capstone course that integrates reading, writing, speaking and critical thinking skills. It includes instruction in scientific writing, use of contemporary scientific biological literature, library research techniques, and requires a major paper considering ethics in science and research. Students will prepare research papers on current topics using primary sources and give oral presentations on their topics to the department faculty. Classroom 3 hours. Prerequisites: senior class standing or permission of the instructor. Offered fall semesters.

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BI 402. Evolution. 4 Credits.

This course is designed to introduce the student to Darwinian and Non-Darwinian mechanisms of evolutionary change, a history of life in the context of contemporary biology, and scientific and cultural controversies surrounding this topic. Offered Fall semesters. Classroom: 4 hours. Prerequisites - BI 101, BI 102 and BI 202 or permission of the instructor. This class can fulfill the CAB1 (anatomy) or CAB5 (systematic) requirements.

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BI 405. Ecology. 4 Credits.

The interrelationships between living organisms and their total environment are studied through a combination of lecture, laboratory and field studies. Major concepts include ecosystem structure and function, community development, species diversity, succession, interspecific and intraspecific relationships, competition, predation, behavior, population growth and regulation. Collection and preservation of plants and animals may be required. Classroom 3 hours. If taken for four credits also laboratory and/or field work 3 hours. Prerequisites: BI 101, BI 102. Offered fall and spring semesters.

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BI 418. Medical Microbiology. 4 Credits.

A study of pathogenic microorganisms including their general characteristics, physiology, pathogenesis, pathology, diagnosis, treatment, immunity, prevention, and control. Laboratory exercises are designed to familiarize students with diagnostic procedures used in the clinical microbiology laboratory. Classroom 2 hours, laboratory 4 hours. Prerequisite: BI 220 or BI 240. Offered even-numbered spring semesters.

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BI 424. Woodland Ecology and Management. 4 Credits.

A review of biotic and abiotic factors controlling the forest environment, methods for determining vegetation structure and succession, introduction to major forest associations in the Northeast, and consequences of various harvesting and management techniques. Classroom 3 hours, field studies 3 hours. Prerequisites: BI 351 or BI 316, or permission of instructor. Offered even-numbered spring semesters.

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BI 440. Reading and Research. 3,4 Credits.

Independent study under the supervision of a department faculty member. Open to junior and senior majors with permission of instructor. BI 440 may be taken no more than twice, for a maximum of 7 credits. Students requesting this course must have a 3.0 GPA in biology courses or departmental approval. An approved topic, a brief outline of the research to be conducted, and a signature from a biology mentor must be submitted to the department chair before the end of the drop-add period of the enrolled semester.

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BI 450. Intership in Biology. 3,4 Credits.

Intership in Biology.

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BI 499. Evolution. 4 Credits.

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